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The so much complete reference source on Celtic tradition; an encyclopedia written through and for students, but obtainable to all.

• 1,500 A–Z entries conceal each point of Celtic lifestyles, from prehistory to the current, with bibliographic references for extra reading

• unique articles through the world's most interesting Celtic scholars

• A finished bibliography of 7,000+ goods together with either unique assets and an important and updated smooth discussions

• 2 hundred drawings and illustrations

• A quick-reference and thesaurus containing 10,000 entries

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20 years have been allowed for monetary union. as a result of the charges of the French wars, even this proportional contribution had materially elevated Ireland’s bills by the point of complete monetary union in 1817. The Union of 1800 used to be lower than assault virtually once it was once handed. Its Achilles heel was once the very factor which had introduced it approximately: the connection of the Irish management to the Catholic majority. As Lord Cornwallis (who favoured Catholic emancipation) positioned it, ‘We have united ourselves to a humans whom we ought in coverage to have destroyed’ (Cornwallis, Correspondence three. 307). there has been a transparent unwillingness to make concessions, and King George III adversarial Pitt’s 1800– 1 plans to introduce Catholic aid and country endowment of Catholicism and Presbyterianism into eire. while it ultimately got here in 1829, Catholic emancipation undermined the confessional union of the Church of eire with that of britain, whereas arriving too past due for plenty of Catholics to be reconciled to the Union. furthermore, the underdevelopment of such a lot of eire in 1800, at a time while the commercial Revolution used to be setting out in Britain, within the long-term undermined the equality of monetary improvement implied by means of the phrases of Union. extra studying Ascendancy; Baile Átha Cliath; Britain; Christianity [1] eire; Éire; Tone; Union; Bolton, Passing of the Irish Act of Union; Cornwallis, Correspondence three; Foster, smooth eire; Molyneux, Case of eire; O’Day & Stevenson, Irish old files; Trans. Royal historic Society 10 (2001); Whelan, Fellowship of Freedom. Murray G. H. Pittock Acte d’Union, Brittany (1532) Following the loss of life of Anne, duchess of Brittany (see Anna ), in 1514, it was once now not solely transparent who may be triumphant her, or what will be the political prestige of the Duchy of Brittany (Breizh ). Anne and her husband, King Louis XII of France, had agreed that the succession could go through their daughter Claude’s moment son (her elder son used to be to develop into king of France). Claude, even if, replaced the provisions that Anne had made, in order that the duchy was once given to her personal husband, King François I of France, in the course of Claude’s lifetime. after they had young ones, the phrases have been replaced back, in order that the dauphin (crown prince) of France used to be additionally to turn into duke of Brittany. whilst Claude died in 1524, ten years after Anne, the duchy was once in thought inherited by means of the six-year-old François. even though, the present French king, Claude’s husband François I, endured to exert a robust impact over the affairs of Brittany. François, the dauphin, was once formally tested as Duke François III of Brittany in 1532. As a part of that celebration his father, King François I of France, released the Édit d’Union (Edict or Act of Union) on thirteen August 1532 at Nantes (Naoned ). A next Act, the Edict of Plessis-Macé of September 1532, clarified a few of Brittany’s privileges in concerns of legislations and finance, in which it retained a great deal of autonomy till the French Revolution. Duke François died 4 years later, and his brother, the long run Henri II of France, assumed the name of duke of Brittany (known to historians as Duke Henri I of Brittany).

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