By Robert F. Schmidt, W. D. Willis
The Encyclopedia of ache contains greater than 3,000 entries and gives transparent, specific and updated insurance of the present kingdom of analysis, and therapy of ache. furthermore, unique essays offer in-depth details on all facets of nociception and ache, together with substrates, factors, pathophysiology, signs and indicators, diagnoses and therapy. one thousand colour figures increase knowing of this too-little-understood subject. The booklet comes in print, in on-line basically shape, or in a print-online bundle.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Pain, Volumes 1-3
2003). in addition, ASICs also are expressed de novo via a better variety of neurons, and perform the recruiting of sensory fibers that develop into nociceptive neurons (Mamet et al. 2002; Voilley et al. 2001). ASICs may also endure post-translational rules. Pro-inflammatory mediators like prostaglandins and bradykinin turn on protein kinase cascades, which perform sensory neuron sensitization. ASIC2a protein should be without delay phosphorylated through protein kinase C (PKC). This phosphorylation, that is facilitated by means of an interplay with the PICK–1 protein, has a favorable influence at the job of the channel (Baron et al. 2002). 6 Acid-Sensing Ion Channels Acid-Sensing Ion Channels, determine 2 Phylogenic tree of the ENaC/DEG/ASIC relations. The relations is constituted quite often by way of the vertebrate epithelial sodium channel subunits (ENaC), the snail FMRF-amide activated sodium channel (FaNaC), the mammalian acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans degenerins (MEC and DEG). The proteins proportion homologies in series and constitution. every one member protein has an easy constitution together with 2 transmembrane domain names and a wide extracellular loop. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels, determine three dimension through electrophysiology of the currents generated by way of ASIC cDNAs transfected in mammalian cells whilst an acidic stimulus is utilized. ASIC1a, ASIC1b and ASIC2a exhibit a brief activation. ASIC3 monitors a brief present via a sustained section. ASIC2b and ASIC4 don't undergo any job. In heteromers, ASIC2b confers a plateau section with a cationic non-selective permeability. for every present style, the half-activation pH (pH50 ) and the sodium over potassium selectivity (PNa /PK ) are given; while the present is biphasic, either values (peak-plateau) are given. motion strength in numerous Nociceptor Populations ASICs current on sensory neurons are hence implicated in acidic discomfort sensing, neuron sensitization, and onset and upkeep of inflammatory hyperalgesia and allodynia. References 1. 2. three. four. five. 6. 7. eight. nine. 10. eleven. 12. thirteen. 14. 15. sixteen. 17. Baron A, Deval E, Salinas M et al. (2002) Protein Kinase C Stimulates the Acid-Sensing Ion Channel ASIC2a through the PDZ Domain-Containing Protein PICK1. J Biol Chem 277:50463–50468 Benson CJ, Xie J, Wemmie JA et al. (2002) Heteromultimers of DEG/ENaC Subunits shape H+ -Gated Channels in Mouse Sensory Neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci united states 99:2338–2343 Chen CC, England S, Akopian AN et al. (1998) A Sensory Neuron-Specific, Proton-Gated Ion Channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci united states 95:10240–10245 Chen CC, Zimmer A, solar WH et al. (2002) a job for ASIC3 within the Modulation of High-Intensity discomfort Stimuli. Proc Natl Acad Sci united states 99:8992–8997 Escoubas P, De Weille JR, Lecoq A et al. (2000) Isolation of a Tarantula Toxin particular for a category of Proton-Gated Na+ Channels. J Biol Chem 275:25116–25121 Garcia-Anoveros J, Derfler B, Neville-Golden J et al. (1997) BNaC1 and BNaC2 represent a brand new family members of Human Neuronal Sodium Channels concerning Degenerins and Epithelial Sodium Channels.