Download E-books The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, Volumes 1-6 (4th Edition) PDF

Includes greater than 2,000 entries starting from brief definitions to significant overviews of ideas in all parts of technology.

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Berlin, Germany, and big apple: Springer, 2004. Singer, Michael J. Soils: An creation. top Saddle River, NJ: Prentice corridor, 2002. Warkentin, Benno P. ed. Footprints within the Soil: humans and concepts in Soil background. Amsterdam, Netherlands, and Boston, MA: Elsevier, 2006. invoice Freedman GA LE E NC YC L OPE D IA OF SC IE N CE four The creation of AIDS (acquired immunity deficiency syndrome) in early 1981 stunned the clinical neighborhood. at the moment, a systematic consensus had built that the realm used to be near to taking away infectious ailment. AIDS is an infectious sickness syndrome that suppresses the immune approach. it really is attributable to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a part of a gaggle of viruses often called retroviruses. The identify AIDS used to be coined in 1982. sufferers of AIDS in most cases die from opportunistic infections that snatch the physique as the immune approach is seriously impaired. AIDS was once well-known sooner than the invention of the agent of disorder. In 1983 and 1984 scientists and their groups at the same time and independently said separating HIV, the virus that almost all scientists agree explanations AIDS. One used to be French immunologist Luc Montagnier (1932–), operating on the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and the opposite used to be American immunologist Robert Gallo (1937–), a rersearchers on the nationwide melanoma Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. either pointed out HIV because the reason for AIDS and confirmed the pathogen to be a retrovirus, which means that its genetic fabric is RNA rather than DNA. Following the invention, a dispute ensued over who made the preliminary discovery. Gallo and Montagnier finally agreed to be co-discoverers. within its host phone, the HIV retrovirus makes use of an enzyme known as opposite transcriptase to make a DNA reproduction of its genetic fabric. the only strand of DNA then replicates and, in double stranded shape, integrates into the chromosome of the host mobile the place it directs synthesis of extra viral RNA. The viral RNA in flip directs the synthesis protein capsids and either are assembled into HIV viruses. quite a few viruses emerge from the host mobile earlier than it dies. HIV destroys the immune process by means of invading lymphocytes and macrophages and replicating. the resultant cellphone dying liberates a brand new virus to start one other around of replication. Scientists think that HIV originated within the zone of sub-Saharan Africa and hence unfold to Europe and the us in terms of the Caribbean. simply because viruses exist that suppress the immune approach in monkeys, scientists have instructed that the virus resident in monkeys underwent mutation within the our bodies of people who ate up the beef of monkeys. A fifteen-year-old male with dermis lesions who died in 1969 is the 1st documented case of AIDS. not able G A LE EN CY C LO PE DI A O F S CI E NC E four Epidemiologists (scientists who research the occurrence, reason, and distribution of illnesses) became their consciousness to AIDS. American scientist James Curran, operating with the facilities for affliction keep watch over and Prevention (CDC), sparked an attempt to trace the prevalence of HIV.

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