Download E-books Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia, Volumes 1-2 PDF

By Alexander Mikaberidze

The 400-plus entries in "Atrocities, Massacres, and battle Crimes: An Encyclopedia" offer available and concise info at the tricky topic of abject human violence devoted on all continents. The entries during this two-volume paintings describe atrocities, massacres, and conflict crimes devoted within the twentieth century, thereby documenting how humans have time and again confirmed their strength to devote terrible acts of inhumanity even in really fresh occasions and in the glossy period. The encyclopedia covers international locations, treaties, and phrases; profiles people who have been officially indicted for conflict crimes in addition to those that have devoted mass atrocities and long past unpunished; and addresses human rights violations, crimes opposed to humanity, and crimes opposed to peace.

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Chukwuemeka Ojukwu, then army governor of NigeriaÊs south jap area, following an edict of the japanese area Constituent meeting. The newly autonomous kingdom used to be produced from the Igbo, Efik, Ibibio, Ijaw, Kalabari, Ogoja, and Ogoni ethnic teams. The identify was once followed from the traditional West African country of Biafra, at the inlet of the Atlantic beach which early Portuguese explorers known as the Bight of Biafra. instant factors ended in the breakaway of the jap sector of Nigeria right into a sovereign republic. First was once the northern Nigerian army officialsê countercoup of July 29, 1966, within which approximately 2 hundred Igbo officials and males of the Nigerian military have been killed, together with the countryÊs first army head of country, Gen. J. T. U. Aguiyi-Ironsi. moment was once the may well, July, and September 1966 Nigerian genocide opposed to Igbo settlers in different components of Nigeria, yet usually within the north. most of these created a pervasive feel of lack of confidence for the lives and houses of Igbo and different japanese ethnicities within the outdated Nigerian state. The starting to be animosity among NigeriaÊs political leaders heightened the cultural and non secular tensions among the south and the north. NigeriaÊs first army coup dÊétat, on January 15, 1966 disillusioned the fragile political stability among the countryÊs 3 dominant ethnic groups·the Igbo, the Yoruba, and the Hausa-Fulani. Northern leaders interpreted the coup as a ploy via the Christian Igbo to usurp political strength from the Arab and Muslim Hausa-Fulani. the implications have been the coup of July 29, the bloodiest in sleek Africa and the 1st black-on-black genocide of contemporary historical past, within which an predicted 50,000 Igbo settlers in northern Nigeria have been butchered in a state-programmed wave of ethnic detoxing whereas millions died of hunger and different factors. Over 1 million survivors of the consequent national pogrom fled again to the Igbo conventional native land within the east to assist stumbled on Biafra as a defense opposed to the brutality of Nigeria. Biscari bloodbath (1943) Yakubu Gowon, a northerner who turned NigeriaÊs moment army head of kingdom, refused to acknowledge the sovereignty of Biafra. He declared a country of emergency, subdivided the prevailing 4 areas of Nigeria into 12 states, and ordered an army invasion of the jap zone. The 30-month civil battle that broke out in July 1967 displayed BiafraÊs ingenuity in the course of the technological inventiveness of its examine and construction unit (RAP), the potency of its army forces, and the perseverance of its humans. As a attempt of its winning international relations, Biafra received various recognitions from France, Gabon, Haiti, the Ivory Coast, Israel, Portugal, South Africa, and Tanzania. The Nigerian executive, notwithstanding, concealed lower than the Biafran oil and armament proliferation pursuits of its British and Soviet Union sponsors to unharness additional acts of genocide opposed to the Biafran civilians. NigeriaÊs Egyptian pilots bombed the Igbo Awgu marketplace, and the Nigerian military burnt up a complete inhabitants of previous males and male childrens within the Igbo city of Asaba.

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