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Extra resources for The Piano: An Encyclopedia (2nd Edition)
The Pianoforte. London: Macdonald & Co. , 1966. Wainwright, David. Broadwood by means of Appointment: A background. London: Quiller Press, 1982. —. The Piano Makers. London: Hutchinson & Co. , 1975. CHAMBER track AND ACCOMPANYING regardless of its humble origins, the piano fast validated itself as a big player in chamber-music literature— first in Classical compositions, then in a just a little extra restricted variety of Romantic and post-Romantic works. in the course of the past due eighteenth and early 19th centuries the piano additionally grew to become crucial automobile of musical accompaniment, in particular within the realm of the paintings music. less significant seeing that global warfare I, the piano has however figured considerably in vocal and chamber works by way of a bunch of composers from Paul Hindemith to Philip Glass. in the beginning vitally important in well known track and jazz, the piano has additionally declined in status as an accompanying tool, even though severe in addition to well known composers proceed to make use of it. in the course of the 1760s and 1770s the continued culture misplaced its iron grip on many eu composers, together with participants linked to the Mannheim college. even as the piano started to exchange the harpsichord because the hottest and flexible keyboard chamber device. these compositional varieties during which the piano tended to dominate winds or strings (e. g. , the piano quintet) contributed to the evolution of the trendy piano concerto, in particular within the arms of JOHANN CHRISTIAN BACH. other kinds, between them the followed solo sonata and trio sonata, progressively advanced into smooth sonatas and piano trios, works written as a lot for the keyboard artist as for their “soloist” colleagues. via the 1790s, for instance, JOSEPH HAYDN had made the piano at the least the equivalent of the violin in his very good piano trios (although he usually slighted the cello at the different tools’ behalf). WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART, in spite of the fact that, was once much more vital as a composer of chamber works with piano; his huge, immense output comprises dozens of violin and piano sonatas, piano trios, piano quartets, particularly very important piano quintets (K. 386c and ok. 581), a masterful sonata for 2 pianos (K. 375a), a quintet for piano and winds (K. 452, which Mozart himself proclaimed the best of his life), and a bunch of different items, a few of them for piano four-hands. LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN prolonged the piano-chamber literature alongside comparable traces, writing sonatas and units of diversifications for violin, cello, and flute (all with piano components, lots of which go beyond what's usually implied through “accompaniment”) that rank between his best works. He additionally accomplished a number of piano trios—among them the “Archduke” (op. 97)—as good as a sonata for piano and horn (op. 17), a quintet for piano and winds (op. 16), and numerous lesser works. Chamber song was once now not continually in a position to accommodate the calls for made via Romantic composers for extremes of instrumental colour and quantity, and several other vital composers—FRANZ LISZT and Richard Wagner, to call yet — wrote nearly not anything for small ensembles.